Zika virus: Transmission, detection, control, and prevention

Anshika Sharma, Sunil K. Lal

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

    60 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus discovered in Uganda in the 1940s. To date, three major ZIKV outbreaks have been reported. ZIKV infections have known to be primarily asymptomatic while causing mild illness in a few cases. However, the recent emergence and spread of ZIKV in the Americas has resulted in the declaration of "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" due to the potential association between the infection and prenatal microcephaly or other brain anomalies. In Brazil, a 20-fold increase in prenatal microcephaly cases and 19% increase in Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) cases were reported in 2015, as compared to the preceding year. The probable deleterious effects of ZIKV infection prompt the urgent development of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this end, the existing evidences supporting the increasingly common prenatal microcephaly and GBS association and the current known ZIKV transmission dynamics, modes of detection (molecular and serology-based), and current control strategies are summarized in this review. This review also emphasizes the importance of understanding ZIKV transmission in order to design a sensitive yet cost and time-efficient detection technique. Development of an efficient detection technique would subsequently allow for better surveillance and control of ZIKV infection. Currently, limited literature is available on the pathogenesis of ZIKV, hence, focusing on the modes of ZIKV transmission could potentially contribute to the understanding of the disease spectrum and formulation of targeted treatment and control.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number110
    Number of pages14
    JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
    Volume8
    Issue numberFEB
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2017

    Keywords

    • Arbovirus
    • Flavivirus infection
    • Guillain-Barré syndrome
    • Microcephaly
    • Sylvatic cycle
    • Zika diagnosis

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