X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission from Core-collapse Supernovae: Comparison of Three-dimensional Neutrino-driven Explosions with SN 1987A

Dennis Alp, Josefin Larsson, Keiichi Maeda, Claes Fransson, Annop Wongwathanarat, Michael Gabler, Hans Thomas Janka, Anders Jerkstrand, Alexander Heger, Athira Menon

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During the first few hundred days after the explosion, core-collapse supernovae (SNe) emit down-scattered X-rays and gamma-rays originating from radioactive line emissions, primarily from the 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe chain. We use supernova (SN) models based on three-dimensional neutrino-driven explosion simulations of single stars and mergers to compute this emission and compare the predictions with observations of SN 1987A. A number of models are clearly excluded, showing that high-energy emission is a powerful way of discriminating between models. The best models are almost consistent with the observations, but differences that cannot be matched by a suitable choice of viewing angle are evident. Therefore, our self-consistent models suggest that neutrino-driven explosions are able to produce, in principle, sufficient mixing, although remaining discrepancies may require small changes to the progenitor structures. The soft X-ray cutoff is primarily determined by the metallicity of the progenitor envelope. The main effect of asymmetries is to vary the flux level by a factor of ∼3. For the more asymmetric models, the shapes of the light curves also change. In addition to the models of SN 1987A, we investigate two models of SNe II-P and one model of a stripped-envelope SN IIb. The Type II-P models have observables similar to those of the models of SN 1987A, but the stripped-envelope SN model is significantly more luminous and evolves faster. Finally, we make simple predictions for future observations of nearby SNe.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
Number of pages19
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019

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