Women’s perspectives of early menopause: development of a word cloud

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Objective: Early menopause (EM), menopause aged <45 years, occurs spontaneously or secondary to medical treatments and is associated with multiple health impacts. A word cloud is an image where the word size reflects the frequency of use. We aimed to assess the perspectives of women with EM using a word cloud. Methods: Women diagnosed with EM, recruited from clinics/community, completed a survey including the open-ended question ‘What words do you associate with EM?’. Demographics and medical history were collected. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, identification of word themes/stems/synonyms, word frequency, and chi-square test. A word cloud was constructed from words used by two or more women using ‘Wordle’ (www.wordle.net). Results: Responses were obtained from 190/263 participants. The mean age was 54 ± 11 years, with EM diagnosed at age 38 ± 5 years. The cause of EM was unknown (30% of women), bilateral oophorectomy (27%), cancer therapy (25%), or autoimmune/genetic/metabolic (17%). The commonest words reported were hot flushes (36.8% of women), mood swings (20.5%), and infertility (16.8%), which varied with age and cause of EM. Few women reported neutral/positive words. Conclusion: Most words that women associate with EM have negative connotations and refer to symptoms. A word cloud is a novel way to illustrate women’s perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-420
Number of pages4
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2020


  • Attitude
  • early menopause
  • premature menopause
  • premature ovarian insufficiency
  • word cloud

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