Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing or feminization in their hosts. Here, we report phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in tephritid fruit flies based on wsp gene sequences. We also report, for the first time, five distinct strains of Wolbachia in Bactrocera ascita sp. B. Four of the five Wolbachia strains found in this species were in the same groups as those found in other tephritid fruit flies, suggesting possible horizontal transmission of Wolbachia from other fruit flies into B. ascita sp. B. The unreliability of wsp-specific group primers demonstrated in this study suggests that these primers might be useful only for preliminary identification of Wolbachia. Final determination of group affiliation needs to be verified with wsp sequence data.