Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, relapsing anxiety disorder. To date, neuroimaging investigations of OCD have been variable and few studies have examined paediatric populations. Eight children with OCD and 12 typically developing children matched for age, gender, handedness and performance IQ underwent a high resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol (using DARTEL) compared the brains of the paediatric OCD children with those of typically developing children. Overall, children with OCD demonstrated significantly lower intra-cranial volume (ICV) and grey- and white-matter volumes. ICV was significantly reduced ( approximately 9 ) in the OCD group compared with the typically developing group. The VBM analysis demonstrated lower volumes in widespread grey matter in bilateral frontal, cingulate, temporal-parietal, occipital-frontal and right precuneus regions for OCD. Lower white matter volume was found bilaterally in the cingulate and occipital cortex, right frontal and parietal and left temporal regions, and the corpus callosum. In summary, this study provides further evidence of brain dysmorphology in paediatric OCD patients. In addition to fronto-striatal-thalamic neural networks, abnormalities in other brain regions, such as the parietal lobe and corpus callosum, were demonstrated. These brain regions may play an additional role in the pathophysiology of OCD.