Why do Australians, New Zealanders, and Americans travel to Fiji? Evidence from cointegration, unit roots, and parameter stability tests

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The aim of this study was to estimate the demand for Fiji's tourism from its three main source markets- Australia, New Zealand, and the US-using the bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our main finding was that visitor arrivals to Fiji and its key determinants are cointegrated over the 1970-2000 period. We then used the autoregressive distributed lag model to estimate short-run and long-run elasticities and found that income in origin countries, transport costs, and prices were significant determinants of Fiji's tourism demand. We also found that coups negatively impact visitor arrivals from all markets. In testing for parameter stability, we established that the series were integrated of order one in the presence of a structural break. We then used the Hansen test for parameter stability and found that the parameters of our long-run model are stable over time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-341
Number of pages21
JournalTourism Analysis
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Bounds test
  • Cointegration
  • Fiji tourism
  • Parameter stability

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