What the hack: reconsidering responses to hacking

Lennon Chang, John Whitehead

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Like most criminological research, much of the research on hacking has predominantly focused upon the Northern Metropolis. As a result, there is a lack of focus on cybercrime within the Global South, particularly on illegal intrusions into computer systems, more colloquially known as hacking. This article provides a critical overview of hacking in the Global South, highlighting the role of strain in this offending behaviour. In particular, the authors note the role of Australian, American, and Taiwanese immigration policies that act to block offenders’ transitions from illicit hacking to legitimate employment in technological hubs outside of the Global South. To address these blocked opportunities, this article suggests the use of innovative justice paradigms, particularly restorative justice and regulatory self-enforcement, that respond to innovation-based cybercrime while also facilitating offender movement into “white hat” employment, even in cases of technology-facilitated sexual violence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-126
Number of pages14
JournalAsian Journal of Criminology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Cybercrime
  • Hacking
  • Regulatory self-enforcement
  • Restorative justice
  • Smart regulation
  • Strain theory

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