Background: Poster presentations are a common form of presenting health information at conferences and in the community. Anecdotal evidence within the discipline indicates that health information framed in a poster presentation may be an effective method of knowledge transfer. Objectives: A state of the art review of the literature was performed to determine the effectiveness of poster presentations on knowledge transfer. Methods: Electronic searches of various electronic databases were performed for studies published until 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided empirical data on the effectiveness of poster presentations on changes in participant knowledge, attitude or behaviour. Results: A total of 51 studies were identified through the database searches, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. No study evaluated the effectiveness of posters in comparison with other educational interventions. Most studies utilised a before/after methodology, with the common conclusion that posters elicit greatest effectiveness in knowledge transfer when integrated with other educational modalities. Conclusions: The poster presentation is a commonly used format for communicating information within the academic and public health fields. Evidence from well-designed studies comparing posters to other educational modalities is required to establish an evidence base on the effectiveness of utilising posters in achieving knowledge transfer.