‘We’re Islam in their eyes’: using an interpellation framework to understand why being a woman matters when countering Islamophobia

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Australian Muslim women are far more likely to be the target of Islamophobic attacks than men, and common narratives often paint Muslim women merely as victims of Islamophobia. This article takes a new approach and considers how Muslim women may counter Islamophobia and the various audiences they must contend with in their work. Using de Koning’s interpellation framework, this research investigates why Australian Muslim women believe gender matters in public countering Islamophobia work and proposes new developments to the framework based on the way Australian Muslim women must mediate the ascriptions of both non-Muslims and Muslim men. This research draws on in-depth interviews with Sunni, Shi’i, and Ahmadiyya women from around Australia who are active in public countering Islamophobia education initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Article number654
Number of pages14
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • education
  • gender
  • interpellation
  • Islam
  • Islamophobia
  • Muslim women
  • public religion
  • social cohesion

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