We Are All Victims: Questionable Content and Collective Victimisation in the Digital Age

Lennon Chang, Souvik Mukherjee, Nicholas Coppel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Traditionally, the idea of being a victim is associated with a crime, accident, trickery or being duped. With the advent of globalisation and rapid growth in the information technology sector, the world has opened itself to numerous vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities range from individual-centric privacy issues to collective interests in the form of a nation’s political and economic interests. While we have victims who can identify themselves as victims, there are also victims who can barely identify themselves as victims, and there are those who do not realise that they have become victims. Misinformation, disinformation, fake news and other methods of spreading questionable content can be regarded as a new and increasingly widespread type of collective victimisation. This paper, drawing on recent examples from India, examines and analyses the rationale and modus operandi—both methods and types—that lead us to regard questionable content as a new form of collective victimisation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-50
Number of pages14
JournalAsian Journal of Criminology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Collective victimisation
  • Questionable content
  • Fake news
  • Misinformation
  • Disinformation
  • COVID-19
  • Democracy and internet

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