Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

Ricardo Jose Da Costa, Ana Maria Teixeira, Luis Rama, Abigail J M Swancott, Lisa D Hardy, Benjamin Lee, Vera Camoes-Costa, Samantha Kirsty Gill, Jessica P Waterman, Emily C Freeth, Edel Barrett, Joanne Hankey, Slawomir Marczak, Encarna Valero-Burgos, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray, Charles D Thake

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42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (T-ssub-max-esub- range: 32-C to 40-C); simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods. Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results: Water (overall mean (SD): total daily 7.7 (1.5) L/day, during running 732 (183) ml/h) and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3) g/day, during running 270 (151) mg/L) ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p <0.001 vs. CON). Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2) (p <0.001). Pre- to post-stage BM gains were observed in 26 of UER along competition. Pre- and post-stage plasma osmolality remained within normal clinical reference range (280 to 303 mOsmol/kg) in the majority of UER (p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage).
Original languageEnglish
Article number13
Number of pages16
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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