Wash-free paper diagnostics for the rapid detection of blood type antibodies

Michael J. Hertaeg, Vidhishri Kesarwani, Heather McLiesh, Julia Walker, Simon R. Corrie, Gil Garnier

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Identification of specific antibodies in patient plasma is an essential part of many diagnostic procedures and is critical for safe blood transfusion. Current techniques require laboratory infrastructure and long turnaround times which limits access to those nearby tertiary healthcare providers. Addressing this challenge, a novel and rapid paper-based antibody test is reported. We validate antibody detection with reverse blood typing using IgM antibodies and then generalise the validity by adapting to detect SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) antibodies in patient serum samples. Reagent red blood cells (RBC) are first combined with the patient plasma containing the screened antibody and a droplet of the mixture is then deposited onto paper. The light intensity profile is analyzed to identify test results, which can be detected by eye and/or with image processing to allow full automation. The efficacy of this test to perform reverse blood typing is demonstrated and the performance and sensitivity of this test using different paper types and RBC reagents was investigated using clinical samples. As an example of the flexibility of this approach, we labeled the RBC reagent with an antibody-peptide conjugate to detect SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) antibodies in patient serum samples. This concept could be generalized to any agglutination-based antibody diagnostics with blood plasma. This journal is

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6970-6980
Number of pages11
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 21 Nov 2021

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