Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals

Benjamin J. Carey, Jian Zhen Ou, Rhiannon M. Clark, Kyle J. Berean, Ali Zavabeti, Anthony S. R. Chesman, Salvy P. Russo, Desmond W. M. Lau, Zai Quan Xu, Qiaoliang Bao, Omid Kavehei, Brant C. Gibson, Michael D. Dickey, Richard B. Kaner, Torben Daeneke, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh

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Abstract

A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14482
Number of pages10
JournalNature Communications
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2017

Cite this

Carey, B. J., Ou, J. Z., Clark, R. M., Berean, K. J., Zavabeti, A., Chesman, A. S. R., ... Kalantar-Zadeh, K. (2017). Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals. Nature Communications, 8, [14482]. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14482
Carey, Benjamin J. ; Ou, Jian Zhen ; Clark, Rhiannon M. ; Berean, Kyle J. ; Zavabeti, Ali ; Chesman, Anthony S. R. ; Russo, Salvy P. ; Lau, Desmond W. M. ; Xu, Zai Quan ; Bao, Qiaoliang ; Kavehei, Omid ; Gibson, Brant C. ; Dickey, Michael D. ; Kaner, Richard B. ; Daeneke, Torben ; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh. / Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals. In: Nature Communications. 2017 ; Vol. 8.
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abstract = "A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.",
author = "Carey, {Benjamin J.} and Ou, {Jian Zhen} and Clark, {Rhiannon M.} and Berean, {Kyle J.} and Ali Zavabeti and Chesman, {Anthony S. R.} and Russo, {Salvy P.} and Lau, {Desmond W. M.} and Xu, {Zai Quan} and Qiaoliang Bao and Omid Kavehei and Gibson, {Brant C.} and Dickey, {Michael D.} and Kaner, {Richard B.} and Torben Daeneke and Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh",
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Carey, BJ, Ou, JZ, Clark, RM, Berean, KJ, Zavabeti, A, Chesman, ASR, Russo, SP, Lau, DWM, Xu, ZQ, Bao, Q, Kavehei, O, Gibson, BC, Dickey, MD, Kaner, RB, Daeneke, T & Kalantar-Zadeh, K 2017, 'Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals', Nature Communications, vol. 8, 14482. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14482

Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals. / Carey, Benjamin J.; Ou, Jian Zhen; Clark, Rhiannon M.; Berean, Kyle J.; Zavabeti, Ali; Chesman, Anthony S. R.; Russo, Salvy P.; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Xu, Zai Quan; Bao, Qiaoliang; Kavehei, Omid; Gibson, Brant C.; Dickey, Michael D.; Kaner, Richard B.; Daeneke, Torben; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh.

In: Nature Communications, Vol. 8, 14482, 17.02.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Ou, Jian Zhen

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AU - Zavabeti, Ali

AU - Chesman, Anthony S. R.

AU - Russo, Salvy P.

AU - Lau, Desmond W. M.

AU - Xu, Zai Quan

AU - Bao, Qiaoliang

AU - Kavehei, Omid

AU - Gibson, Brant C.

AU - Dickey, Michael D.

AU - Kaner, Richard B.

AU - Daeneke, Torben

AU - Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

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N2 - A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

AB - A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

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Carey BJ, Ou JZ, Clark RM, Berean KJ, Zavabeti A, Chesman ASR et al. Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals. Nature Communications. 2017 Feb 17;8. 14482. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14482