Volume and rate measurement of slowly generated gas bubbles

Hassan Ali Abid, Jian Wern Ong, Eric Shen Lin, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The use of an inverted burette arrangement that allowed volume and time-course tracking of bubble movement via camera imaging is shown here to improve on the classical inverted jar (or beaker) method for measuring gases generated in small volumes and at slow rates (below 1 mL/s). In tests involving discrete gas volume measurements delivered at 0.57 mL/s, comparison with pre-set air volume delivered by a syringe pump showed high correspondence, linearity, and repeatability. Tests with continuous gas flows at 0.2, 0.32 and 0.57 mL/s revealed average bubble count versus volume trends that displayed high linearity to indicate that the bubble volumes (at any flowrate) were constant. The average bubble count versus time also showed linear trends and repeatability indicating that the time intervals between the appearance of any two bubbles (at a particular flowrate) were uniform. The analytical and simulated results helped to explain why bubble size determination by high speed camera recording for measuring gas volume and flowrate is fraught with inherent problems. An analysis using light ray tracing showed that flowrate determination using such an approach would necessitate complicated image correction when two cameras are used for simultaneous recording due to distortion effects resulting from refraction. A virtual gate approach involving the binarization of images recorded with a standard camera is shown to be more feasible in establishing the flowrate using bubble counting or finding the time interval between bubbles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101694
Number of pages8
JournalFlow Measurement and Instrumentation
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • Binarization
  • Bubble
  • Gas
  • Inverted burette
  • Ray tracing

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