Volatile organic compounds and sensory profile of dark chocolates made with cocoa beans fermented with Pichia kudriavzevii and Hanseniaspora thailandica

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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important to determine the aroma and sensory perception of cocoa. Starter cultures can modulate the volatile profile of cocoa beans during fermentation. This study aimed to determine the VOCs and sensory of chocolates produced using cocoa beans fermented with yeast starters (Pichia kudriavzevii (MH979681), Hanseniaspora thailandica (MH979675) and the mixture of the two yeasts (Mix)). The VOCs of chocolates were determined by Head-Space Solid Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry. Sensory analysis was determined by using trained panels. VOCs profiles of chocolates produced using beans fermented with HT, PK or Mix were noticeably different from Ghana and control chocolates (no starter). The addition of yeast starters during cocoa fermentation produced chocolates that were preferred by trained panels. Bitterness and astringency were the more intense flavour attributes in chocolates produced using cocoa beans added with yeast starters. The chocolate produced using cocoa beans fermented with PK was the most acidic; whereas chocolate produced using beans fermented with Mix had the sweetest taste. The addition of PK or HT is helpful in producing chocolate with a distinct flavour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2714-2723
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Food Science and Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • Chocolate
  • Cocoa beans
  • Sensory
  • Volatile organic compounds
  • Yeast starter

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