Vitreous biomarkers in diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Annie K. McAuley, Paul G. Sanfilippo, Alex W. Hewitt, Helena Liang, Ecosse Lamoureux, Jie Jin Wang, Paul P. Connell

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53 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to perform a systematic meta-analysis of biomarkers investigated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the vitreous, and to explore the molecular pathway interactions of these markers found to be consistently associated with DR. Relevant databases [PubMed and ISI web of science] were searched for all published articles investigating molecular biomarkers of the vitreous associated with DR. Based on set exclusion/inclusion criteria available data from studies with human vitreous samples were extracted and used for our meta-analysis. The interactions of significant biomarkers in DR were investigated via STRING and KEGG pathway analysis. Our meta-analysis of DR identifies eleven biomarkers as potential therapeutic candidates alternate to current anti-VEGF therapy. Four of these are deemed viable therapeutic targets for PDR; ET receptors (ET A and ET B), anti-PDGF-BB, blocking TGF-β using cell therapy and PEDF. The identification of supplementary or synergistic therapeutic candidates to anti VEGF in the treatment of DR may aid in the development of future treatment trials.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-425
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Diabetes and its Complications
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • EPO
  • HGF
  • IL-6
  • IL-8
  • KEGG pathway
  • Macular edema
  • Proliferative retinopathy
  • VEGF
  • Vitrectomy

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