Vitamin D and symptoms of depression in overweight or obese adults: A cross-sectional study and randomized placebo-controlled trial

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Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 63 (39M/24F) overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25kg/m2) and vitamin D-deficient (25(OH)D ≤50 nmol/l) adults (mean age=31.3±8.5), without clinical depression. Participants were randomized to either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4000 IU daily of cholecalciferol, or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Interventional analyses were performed on data from 48 participants (30M/18F) who completed the trial. We measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations; anthropometry: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), % body fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry); and depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after intervention. Data on dietary vitamin D intake (3-day food record), physical activity (international physical activity questionnaire), and sun exposure habits were collected using questionnaires.At baseline, mean 25(OH)D concentration was 32.9. ±. 11.3 nmol/l and total BDI score was 6.6. ±. 6.3 (range = 0-33). There were no associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and total BDI scores or BDI subscales (all p. >. 0.1). After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group compared to placebo (56.0. ±. 20.8 versus 2.7. ±. 13.9 nmol/L, respectively; p <. 0.0001). Change in total BDI scores did not differ between vitamin D and placebo groups (-2.0. ±. 4.5 versus -1.5. ±. 2.9, respectively; p = 0.7). There were no differences in BDI subscales between groups (both p. >. 0.1). Results remained non-significant after adjusting for multiple covariates including sun exposure, physical activity, and dietary vitamin D intake (all p. >. 0.1).Our findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may not be related to increased risk of depression in individuals without clinically significant depression and that the use of vitamin D supplementation may not be warranted for reducing depressive symptoms in this population. Further large-scale studies are needed to establish whether vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for improving depressive symptoms in other population groups, including in those with existing depressive or psychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)200-208
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume177
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018

Keywords

  • 25(OH)D
  • Depression
  • Obesity
  • Randomized trial
  • Vitamin D

Cite this

@article{d3d6621c62984f2fbf693d1af7fd5f2c,
title = "Vitamin D and symptoms of depression in overweight or obese adults: A cross-sectional study and randomized placebo-controlled trial",
abstract = "Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 63 (39M/24F) overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25kg/m2) and vitamin D-deficient (25(OH)D ≤50 nmol/l) adults (mean age=31.3±8.5), without clinical depression. Participants were randomized to either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4000 IU daily of cholecalciferol, or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Interventional analyses were performed on data from 48 participants (30M/18F) who completed the trial. We measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations; anthropometry: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), {\%} body fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry); and depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after intervention. Data on dietary vitamin D intake (3-day food record), physical activity (international physical activity questionnaire), and sun exposure habits were collected using questionnaires.At baseline, mean 25(OH)D concentration was 32.9. ±. 11.3 nmol/l and total BDI score was 6.6. ±. 6.3 (range = 0-33). There were no associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and total BDI scores or BDI subscales (all p. >. 0.1). After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group compared to placebo (56.0. ±. 20.8 versus 2.7. ±. 13.9 nmol/L, respectively; p <. 0.0001). Change in total BDI scores did not differ between vitamin D and placebo groups (-2.0. ±. 4.5 versus -1.5. ±. 2.9, respectively; p = 0.7). There were no differences in BDI subscales between groups (both p. >. 0.1). Results remained non-significant after adjusting for multiple covariates including sun exposure, physical activity, and dietary vitamin D intake (all p. >. 0.1).Our findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may not be related to increased risk of depression in individuals without clinically significant depression and that the use of vitamin D supplementation may not be warranted for reducing depressive symptoms in this population. Further large-scale studies are needed to establish whether vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for improving depressive symptoms in other population groups, including in those with existing depressive or psychiatric disorders.",
keywords = "25(OH)D, Depression, Obesity, Randomized trial, Vitamin D",
author = "Aya Mousa and Negar Naderpoor and {de Courten}, {Maximilian P.J.} and {de Courten}, Barbora",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.08.002",
language = "English",
volume = "177",
pages = "200--208",
journal = "Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology",
issn = "0960-0760",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Vitamin D and symptoms of depression in overweight or obese adults

T2 - A cross-sectional study and randomized placebo-controlled trial

AU - Mousa, Aya

AU - Naderpoor, Negar

AU - de Courten, Maximilian P.J.

AU - de Courten, Barbora

PY - 2018/3

Y1 - 2018/3

N2 - Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 63 (39M/24F) overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25kg/m2) and vitamin D-deficient (25(OH)D ≤50 nmol/l) adults (mean age=31.3±8.5), without clinical depression. Participants were randomized to either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4000 IU daily of cholecalciferol, or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Interventional analyses were performed on data from 48 participants (30M/18F) who completed the trial. We measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations; anthropometry: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), % body fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry); and depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after intervention. Data on dietary vitamin D intake (3-day food record), physical activity (international physical activity questionnaire), and sun exposure habits were collected using questionnaires.At baseline, mean 25(OH)D concentration was 32.9. ±. 11.3 nmol/l and total BDI score was 6.6. ±. 6.3 (range = 0-33). There were no associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and total BDI scores or BDI subscales (all p. >. 0.1). After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group compared to placebo (56.0. ±. 20.8 versus 2.7. ±. 13.9 nmol/L, respectively; p <. 0.0001). Change in total BDI scores did not differ between vitamin D and placebo groups (-2.0. ±. 4.5 versus -1.5. ±. 2.9, respectively; p = 0.7). There were no differences in BDI subscales between groups (both p. >. 0.1). Results remained non-significant after adjusting for multiple covariates including sun exposure, physical activity, and dietary vitamin D intake (all p. >. 0.1).Our findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may not be related to increased risk of depression in individuals without clinically significant depression and that the use of vitamin D supplementation may not be warranted for reducing depressive symptoms in this population. Further large-scale studies are needed to establish whether vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for improving depressive symptoms in other population groups, including in those with existing depressive or psychiatric disorders.

AB - Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 63 (39M/24F) overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25kg/m2) and vitamin D-deficient (25(OH)D ≤50 nmol/l) adults (mean age=31.3±8.5), without clinical depression. Participants were randomized to either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4000 IU daily of cholecalciferol, or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Interventional analyses were performed on data from 48 participants (30M/18F) who completed the trial. We measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations; anthropometry: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), % body fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry); and depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after intervention. Data on dietary vitamin D intake (3-day food record), physical activity (international physical activity questionnaire), and sun exposure habits were collected using questionnaires.At baseline, mean 25(OH)D concentration was 32.9. ±. 11.3 nmol/l and total BDI score was 6.6. ±. 6.3 (range = 0-33). There were no associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and total BDI scores or BDI subscales (all p. >. 0.1). After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group compared to placebo (56.0. ±. 20.8 versus 2.7. ±. 13.9 nmol/L, respectively; p <. 0.0001). Change in total BDI scores did not differ between vitamin D and placebo groups (-2.0. ±. 4.5 versus -1.5. ±. 2.9, respectively; p = 0.7). There were no differences in BDI subscales between groups (both p. >. 0.1). Results remained non-significant after adjusting for multiple covariates including sun exposure, physical activity, and dietary vitamin D intake (all p. >. 0.1).Our findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may not be related to increased risk of depression in individuals without clinically significant depression and that the use of vitamin D supplementation may not be warranted for reducing depressive symptoms in this population. Further large-scale studies are needed to establish whether vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for improving depressive symptoms in other population groups, including in those with existing depressive or psychiatric disorders.

KW - 25(OH)D

KW - Depression

KW - Obesity

KW - Randomized trial

KW - Vitamin D

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.08.002

DO - 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.08.002

M3 - Article

VL - 177

SP - 200

EP - 208

JO - Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

JF - Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

SN - 0960-0760

ER -