Visualization of Blood Vessels in Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Environments for Vascular Stereology in the Brain

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The value of performing design-based stereology is in the statistical sampling combined with geometric probes to generate three-dimensional (3D) data where no assumptions exist regarding tissue or target size, shape, distribution, or orientation of the target analyzed. However, the stereological data generated, particularly in regard to tissue volume, are affected by biological and technical factors such as tissue collection, fixation, tissue processing into frozen or paraffin blocks, storage, defining region of interest, targets to count, and reference space and sources of random and systemic errors. Quantitative analysis of vascular parameters with unbiased stereology avoids or minimizes the introduction of systematic error while reducing random errors to an acceptable level. Unequivocal identification of blood vessels in any tissue is possible when vascular components are clearly delineated from the surrounding tissue. The availability of vascular-specific markers allows investigators to label and quantify vessels within defined reference spaces.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeurostereology
Subtitle of host publicationUnbiased Stereology of Neural Systems
EditorsP.R. Mouton
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781118444177
ISBN (Print)9781118444214
Publication statusPublished - 25 Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain blood vessels
  • Three-dimensional (3D) environments
  • Tissue section
  • Vascular stereology

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