Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor attention to detail, poor attention maintenance, and variability throughout task performance. The authors used a quantitative trait loci approach to assess the association between the dopamine transporter (DAT1) high-risk genotype, cognitive performance (visual search and vigilance), and ADHD symptoms in a community sample of boys 6-11 years of age. The potential confounding effects of IQ and chronological age were also investigated. Results demonstrate that accuracy in target detection, not speed, distinguishes poor attenders from good attenders. The authors speculate that the measure of performance (e.g., time and false alarms) may be critical in detecting attentional weaknesses. In contrast, DAT1 gene, known to be associated with the behavioral symptoms of ADHD, was unrelated to visual search or vigilance performance, although it was related to ADHD symptoms.