Visitor satisfaction and place attachment in national parks

Haywantee Ramkissoon, Liam David Graham Smith, Sarah Caroline Kneebone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines the relationships between visitor satisfaction and place attachment. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test competing models of visitor satisfaction and place attachment represented as a (i) unidimensional, (ii) first-order, and (iii) secondorder factor. Data were collected from a sample of 525 visitors at the Bruce Peninsula National Park, in the state of Ontario, Canada. Results indicate visitor satisfaction is a better predictor of place attachment as a second-order construct. Findings are discussed with respect to their applied and theoretical relevance. Practical applications of the study include strategies aimed at achieving optimum visitor satisfaction and promoting place attachment in national parks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287 - 300
Number of pages14
JournalTourism Analysis
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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