Visible-light-activated oxygen-rich TiO2 as next generation photocatalyst: importance of annealing temperature on the photoactivity toward reduction of carbon dioxide

Lling Lling Tan, Wee Jun Ong, Siang Piao Chai, Abdul Rahman Mohamed

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Herein, visible-light-active oxygen-rich TiO2 (O2-TiO2) photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile and dopant-free strategy using different annealing temperatures ranging from 200 to 800°C. The annealing treatment had important effects on the anatase-rutile phase composition, textural property and photocatalytic performance of O2-TiO2. The photoactivity of the samples were evaluated through the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 under the irradiation of low-powered energy-saving daylight bulbs. O2-TiO2 calcined at an optimum temperature of 300°C (O2-TiO2-300) displayed the highest photocatalytic performance, achieving an enhancement factor of 12.2 and 11.2 over pure anatase TiO2 and the commercial Degussa P25, respectively. Although the improvement in photoactivity could be attributed to the combined effect of several factors such as enhanced optical properties and high surface area of O2-TiO2-300, the findings from this work provided evidence that the optimum anatase-rutile phase composition in the sample played a dominant role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance. Based on the experimental results obtained, a plausible mechanism for the charge transfer and separation process in O2-TiO2 was also proposed. The present work could provide new insights into the architecture of oxygen-modified TiO2 photocatalysts with markedly enhanced photocatalytic activities in energy- and environmental-related applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1254-1263
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Oxygen-rich
  • Photocatalyst
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Visible light

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