Vertical distribution of heavy metals in seawater column during IBA construction in land reclamation – Re-exploration of a large-scale field trial experiment

Ke Yin, Wei Ping Chan, Xiaomin Dou, Grzegorz Lisak, Victor Wei Chung Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Data from large-scale field trial experiments simulating the application of incineration bottom ash (IBA) for land reclamation were re-explored, to understand the spot-specific leaching characteristics and re-adsorption of heavy metals associated with various reclamation scenarios. Data showed that IBA leaching changed significantly as a function of seawater depth rather than time. The application of a chute had a minor effect on the total metal leached amounts; however, it would magnify the gradient of leaching concentrations across depths. Metal re-adsorption occurred within half an hour after IBA dumping, which however was significantly alleviated when a chute was applied. It may be ascribed to various degrees of contact with seawater of IBA, seawater movements and particle resuspension. Batch leaching tests from the laboratory under different L/S ratios were conducted as the references to “effective” leaching behaviors in the large-scale experiments, suggesting that the batch leaching test with the liquid to solid ratio = 10 provide a closer estimation of IBA leaching concentrations during land reclamation. As the current study took account of major field factors during land reclamation, including seawater depth (m), IBA loading (ton), IBA dropping method, particle dispersive area (m 2 ), and settling time (min), these findings are valuable for the risk assessment of IBA utilization in land reclamation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)356-364
Number of pages9
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • Ecotoxicity
  • Heavy metal leaching potential
  • IBA
  • Land reclamation
  • Vertical distribution

Cite this