The cellular origins of vasa vasorum are ill-defined and may involve circulating or local progenitor cells. We previously discovered that murine aortic adventitia contains Sca-1 + CD45 + progenitors that produce macrophages. Here we investigated whether they are also vasculogenic. In aortas of C57BL/6 mice, Sca-1 + CD45 + cells were localised to adventitia and lacked surface expression of endothelial markers (<1% for CD31, CD144, TIE-2). In contrast, they did show expression of CD31, CD144, TIE-2 and VEGFR2 in atherosclerotic ApoE −/− aortas. Although Sca-1 + CD45 + cells from C57BL/6 aorta did not express CD31, they formed CD31 + colonies in endothelial differentiation media and produced interconnecting vascular-like cords in Matrigel that contained both endothelial cells and a small population of macrophages, which were located at branch points. Transfer of aortic Sca-1 + CD45 + cells generated endothelial cells and neovessels de novo in a hindlimb model of ischaemia and resulted in a 50% increase in perfusion compared to cell-free control. Similarly, their injection into the carotid adventitia of ApoE −/− mice produced donor-derived adventitial and peri-adventitial microvessels after atherogenic diet, suggestive of newly formed vasa vasorum. These findings show that beyond its content of macrophage progenitors, adventitial Sca-1 + CD45 + cells are also vasculogenic and may be a source of vasa vasorum during atherogenesis.