Validity of the Assistance to Participate Scale with Parents of typically developing Australian children aged three to eight years

Kahli Joyce, Helen Bourke-Taylor, Sarah Wilkes-Gillan

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Background/aim: The Assistance to Participate Scale (APS) measures the assistance parents provide to children with disability to participate in play and leisure. The primary aim of this study was to extend the psychometric development of the APS through application to a typically developing sample. Methods: Parents (N = 125) of typically developing Australian children aged three to eight years completed an online questionnaire comprising the APS, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Pediatric Quality of Life Scale (PedsQL) (caregiver scales) and demographic questions. Guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN), structural validity of the APS was investigated using principal components analysis; internal consistency reliability through calculation of Cronbach's α; construct validity through convergence with previously validated measures of paediatric occupational performance and quality of life (PEDI, PedsQL) and investigation of five research hypotheses developed a priori. Results: Structural validity of the APS was confirmed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.76) was good for this unidimensional scale. Construct validity was substantiated by moderate correlations with the PEDI and PedsQL (physical), and data that supported all research hypotheses. Statistically significant differences were found in APS scores based on sex (P = 0.018), age (P < 0.001), school attendance (P < 0.001) and elder sibling (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Results of this study indicate the APS is a valid and reliable measure of the parental role in a typically developing child's play. Validation upon a typically developing sample offers preliminary guidelines regarding the normative pattern of assistance provided to children during play. Further research in line with the COSMIN is required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-390
Number of pages10
JournalAustralian Occupational Therapy Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017


  • Parenting
  • Participation
  • Play
  • Psychometrics
  • Typically developing children

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