Validation of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale for an investigation of breast cancer screening behaviour in Malaysia

Mila Nu Nu Htay, Désirée Schliemann, Maznah Dahlui, Christopher R. Cardwell, Siew Yim Loh, Nor Saleha Binti Ibrahim Tamin, Saunthari Somasundaram, Victoria Champion, Michael Donnelly, Tin Tin Su

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women globally, including in Malaysia. There is a need to assess women’s beliefs about BC and screening in different cultural settings. This study aimed to translate and validate an adapted version of the United States (US) Champion Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for an investigation of predictors of BC screening in Malaysia. The CHBMS was adapted, and forward and backward translated into the Malay language. The validity and reliability of the CHBMS-BC-M (M for Malay language) was investigated in a community sample of 251 multi-ethnic Malay-speaking women. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation indicated that the structure of the adapted CHBMS-BC-M comprised three subscales with 21 items, and an Item-Content Validity Index (I-CVI) of 0.83 and above for all items. The explanatory factor analysis (EFA) showed acceptable to high factor loadings on items. Cronbach’s alpha for the subscales ranged from 0.59 to 0.87. The reproducibility of the scale was fair to high, with an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.53 to 0.80 for the subscales. Overall, the analysis indicated that the translated CHBMS-BC-M is a valid and reliable scale to measure beliefs about BC and screening in the Malay-speaking ethnic population of Malaysia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9311
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021


  • Breast cancer
  • Champion Health Belief Model Scale
  • Health beliefs
  • Malaysia
  • Mammogram
  • Reliability
  • Translation
  • Validity

Cite this