Various Salmonella enterica serovars, including S. enterica serovar Typhi, encode an AB5 toxin (ArtAB), the A subunit of which is an ADP-ribosyltransferase related to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin. However, although the A subunit is able to catalyze ADP-ribosylation of host G proteins, a cytotoxic phenotype has yet to be identified for the holotoxin. Here we show that its B subunit pentamer (ArtB) binds to receptors on the surface of Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell, CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell, U937 (human monocyte) cell, and HBMEC (human brain microvascular endothelial cell) lines. Moreover, ArtB induced marked vacuolation in all cell lines after 4 h of incubation. Further studies in Vero cells showed that vacuolation was inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and was dependent on the clathrin-mediated uptake of ArtB. Vacuolation was also inhibited by treatment of cells with neuraminidase, indicating that sialylated glycans are functional receptors for ArtB. Confocal colocalization studies indicated that after cell binding and internalization, ArtB undergoes retrograde transport via early endosomes, the trans-Golgi network, and the Golgi apparatus, reaching the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after approximately 2 h. The onset of vacuolation also coincided with gross cytoskeletal reorganization. At later time points, ArtB colocalized with ERTracker Red in the vacuolar membrane, implying that vacuolation is a consequence of ER disorganization. Thus, the isolated B subunit of this cryptic AB5 toxin has significant effects on target cells with the potential to contribute directly to pathogenesis independently of the catalytic A subunit.
- AB5 toxins
- B subunit