Vaccination challenges and strategies against long-lived Toxoplasma gondii

Fei Kean Loh, Sheila Nathan, Sek Chuen Chow, Chee Mun Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Since the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii in 1908, it is estimated that one-third of the global population has been exposed to this ubiquitous intracellular protozoan. The complex life cycle of T. gondii has enabled itself to overcome stress and transmit easily within a broad host range thus achieving a high seroprevalence worldwide. To date, toxoplasmosis remains one of the most prevalent HIV-associated opportunistic central nervous system infections. This review presents a comprehensive overview of different vaccination approaches ranging from traditional inactivated whole-T. gondii vaccines to the popular DNA vaccines. Extensive discussions are made to highlight the challenges in constructing these vaccines, selecting adjuvants as well as delivery methods, immunisation approaches and developing study models. Herein we also deliberate over the latest and promising enhancement strategies that can address the limitations in developing an effective T. gondii prophylactic vaccine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3989-4000
Number of pages12
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jul 2019


  • Cross-protection
  • Life cycle
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Vaccination

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