Complex mesoscopic systems play increasingly important roles in modern science, from understanding biological functions at the molecular level to designing solid-state information processing devices. The operation of these systems typically depends on their energetic structure, yet probing their energy landscape can be extremely challenging; they have many degrees of freedom, which may be hard to isolate and measure independently. Here, we show that a qubit (a two-level quantum system) with a biased energy splitting can directly probe the spectral properties of a complex system, without knowledge of how they couple. Our work is based on the completely positive and trace-preserving map formalism, which treats any unknown dynamics as a "black-box" process. This black box contains information about the system with which the probe interacts, which we access by measuring the survival probability of the initial state of the probe as function of the energy splitting and the process time. Fourier transforming the results yields the energy spectrum of the complex system. Without making assumptions about the strength or form of its coupling, our probe could determine aspects of a complex molecule's energy landscape as well as, in many cases, test for coherent superposition of its energy eigenstates.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Physical Review A|
|Publication status||Published - 14 Sep 2016|