User expectations of robots in public spaces: a co-design methodology

Leimin Tian, Pamela Carreno-Medrano, Shanti Sumartojo, Michael Mintrom, Enrique Coronado, Gentiane Venture, Dana Kulić

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


People are increasingly encountering robots in public spaces, but they rarely have input into how such technology is conceived or deployed. To familiarise and engage the general public with new robot technology, we present a novel co-design workshop methodology with a three-phased structure: open discussion, participatory prototyping, and follow-up interviews. Open discussion collects users’ initial expectations; Participatory prototyping deepens users’ understanding of the technology and elicits concrete, user-centered discussion on the technology being investigated; and follow-up interviews collect personal reflections. An online workshop following this methodology facilitated our research on users’ expectations of robots in public spaces. Our observations highlighted that co-design workshops are effective for advancing users’ understanding of robotic technology and applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSocial Robotics
Subtitle of host publication12th International Conference, ICSR 2020, Golden, CO, USA, November 14–18, 2020, Proceedings
EditorsKerstin Sophie Haring, Silvia Rossi, Thomas Williams
Place of PublicationCham Switzerland
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9783030620561
ISBN (Print)9783030620554
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event12th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2020 - Golden, United States of America
Duration: 14 Nov 202018 Nov 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference12th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States of America


  • Co-design workshop
  • HRI
  • Participatory prototyping

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