INTRODUCTION: We examined the clinical relevance of urinary concentrations of B-cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
METHODS: We quantified urinary BAFF (uBAFF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 85 SLE, 28 primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), 40 immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) patients and 36 healthy controls (HCs). Urinary APRIL (uAPRIL) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (uMCP-1) were also quantified. Overall and renal SLE disease activity were assessed using the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000.
RESULTS: uBAFF was detected in 12% (10/85) of SLE patients, but was undetectable in HCs, IgAN and pSS patients. uBAFF was detectable in 28% (5/18) of SLE patients with active nephritis vs 5/67 (7%) of those without ( p = 0.03), and uBAFF was significantly higher in active renal patients ( p = 0.02) and more likely to be detected in patients with persistently active renal disease. In comparison, uAPRIL and uMCP-1 were detected in 32% (25/77) and 46% (22/48) of SLE patients, respectively. While no difference in proportion of samples with detectable uAPRIL was observed between SLE, HCs and IgAN patients, both uAPRIL and uMCP-1 were significantly detectable in higher proportions of patients with active renal disease.
CONCLUSIONS: uBAFF was detectable in a small but a significant proportion of SLE patients but not in other groups tested, and was higher in SLE patients with active renal disease.
- A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL)
- B-cell–activating factor from the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF)
- lupus nephritis (LN)
- monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)
- systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)