We study the role of unemployment in the context of the endogeneous formation of a monocentric city in which firms set efficiency wages to deter shirking. We first show that, in equilibrium, the employed locate at the vicinity of the city-center, the unemployed reside at the city-edge and firms set up in the city-center. We then show that there is a 'spatial mismatch' between location and jobs because the further away from jobs the unemployed, the larger the level of unemployment. Finally, we derive some policy implications. We show that a policy that improves the city transportation network (by subsidizing the commuting costs of all workers) reduces urban unemployment, increases utilities of all workers but raises inequality whereas a policy that supports the transportation of the unemployed only (by subsidizing their commuting costs) increases urban unemployment, does not always raise workers' utilities but reduces inequality.
- Efficiency wages
- Endogeneous location of workers and firms
- Spatial mismatch
- Subsidizing commuting costs
- Urban unemployment