In this work, a Universal Reversible Data Embedding method applicable to any Encrypted Domain (urDEED) is proposed. urDEED operates completely in the encrypted domain and requires no feature of the signal prior to the encryption process. In particular, urDEED exploits the coding redundancy of the encrypted signal by partitioning it into segments referred to as imaginary codewords (IC's). Then, IC's are entropy encoded by using Golomb-Rice codewords (GRC's). Finally, each GRC is modified to accommodate two bits from the augmented payload. urDEED is designed to preserve the same file-size as that of the original input (encrypted) signal by embedding the quotient part of the GRC's as side information. Moreover, urDEED is consistently reversible and universally applicable to any digital signal encrypted by any encryption method. Experimental results show that urDEED achieves an average embedding capacity of ∼0.169 bit per every bit of the encrypted (host) signal.
- Encrypted domain
- Golomb-Rice coding
- Universal Parser
- Universal reversible data embedding