A simultaneous convection–dehydration and antisolvent precipitation approach has been shown to produce uniform microsized lactose particles from aqueous droplet at atmospheric pressure. Microparticles with high uniformity having diameters of between 1.0 and 2.4 μm have been obtained. The precipitation of the microparticles is driven by a unique self-assembly mechanism that cannot be fully elucidated by supersaturation alone. Further analysis suggests that structural changes in the solvent/antisolvent mixture, due to hydrophobic hydration, could play a role in the precipitation process observed.
Mansouri, S., Fu, N., Woo, M. W., & Chen, X. D. (2012). Uniform amorphous lactose microspheres formed in simultaneous convective and dehydration antisolvent precipitation under atmospheric conditions. Langmuir, 28(39), 13772 - 13776. https://doi.org/10.1021/la302301h