Unexplored dimensions of discrimination in Europe: homosexuality and physical appearance

Eleonora Patacchini, Giuseppe Ragusa, Yves Zenou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


We study labor-market discrimination of individuals with specific characteristics in Italy. We conduct a field experiment in two Italian cities: Rome and Milan, by sending fake CVs to real ads. We find that there is a strong penalty for homosexuals, i.e., about 30 less chance to be called back compared to a heterosexual male and even more so if they are highly skilled. On the other hand, we find no penalty for homosexual females. We also find a beauty premium for females only but this premium is much lower when the pretty woman is skilled.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1045-1073
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of Population Economics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • discrimination
  • gays
  • lesbians
  • field experiment

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