BACKGROUND: Undescended testis (UDT) is a common condition, and parents often primarily present to general practitioners. Management in a timely fashion may reduce the risk of malignancy and infertility OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to summarise the key points of assessment and management of UDT in the primary care setting. By reviewing key definitions, such as undescended, retractile, ectopic and ascending testes, we aim to provide updated information for the ongoing management of these conditions. DISCUSSION: The exact pathophysiology of UDT is still an area of ongoing research, and there remains much controversy regarding the exact mechanisms leading to congenital and acquired UDT. Current evidence does not support the use of ultrasonography prior to referral. Hormone therapy has shown no significant benefit, and surgery remains the treatment of choice.