Understanding Transport-Related Social Exclusion: A Multidimensional Approach

Tan Yigitcanlar, Afzan Mohamed, Md Kamruzzaman, Awais Piracha

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Transport-related social exclusion (TRSE) is a common problem across the globe. Despite TRSE has been identified to be a multifaceted concept, researchers often focus on a single dimension to identify individuals/groups facing exclusion, which leaves most of the at-risk groups unidentified–due to a lack of comprehensive empirical framework. This paper reports the development of a multidimensional framework through a review of the literature and based on a Delphi survey. A range of dimensions and indicators of TRSE were identified through the review. Their suitability was assessed by the experts through a two-round Delphi survey–involving 33 international experts. These experts reached a consensus that individuals are likely to face TRSE in physical, economic, temporal, spatial, psychological, and information dimensions, which can be measured by 15 key indicators consisting of 47 sub-indicators. The findings of this research serve as a guide for scholars and policymakers to understand what constitutes TRSE and act accordingly.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
JournalUrban Policy and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Delphi method
  • social exclusion
  • transport disadvantage
  • transport policy
  • Transport-related social exclusion
  • urban policy

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