Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the most widely performed cardiac operation in the western world. Over recent decades, remarkable technical progress has been made allowing the operation to be performed with low morbidity and mortality. The large majority of CABGs are still carried out on pump utilizing the heart-lung machine. In this Review, the noncardiac complications of CABG are discussed including etiology, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention. ? 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.