Ultrasonic spray deposition of TiO2 electron transport layers for reproducible and high efficiency hybrid perovskite solar cells

Jingsong Sun, Alexander R. Pascoe, Steffen Meyer, Qijie Wu, Enrico Della Gaspera, Sonia R. Raga, Tian Zhang, Andrew Nattestad, Udo Bach, Yi Bing Cheng, Jacek J. Jasieniak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The fabrication of high efficiency perovskite solar cells at larger scales will rely on the optimized deposition conditions of every layer using scalable methodologies. Most current perovskite devices that employ the archetypal TiO2 hole blocking layer utilise a simple air-brush approach. This approach is not scalable as it results in significant layer inhomogeneity across larger devices areas. To overcome this inherent limitation, in this work we use ultrasonic spray deposition as an alternative approach for the TiO2 deposition. Focusing on identical reaction chemistries as for air-brush, namely bis(isopropoxide)-bis(acetylacetonate) titanium (IV) based solutions, we find that under optimized conditions smooth TiO2 layers can be readily deposited over scalable areas on fluorine doped tin oxide. Using these layers at electron transport layers within diodes and perovskite solar cell devices, we develop effective benchmarks that predict the effectiveness of the underlying charge transport layer. This enables for the standardisation of the electron transport properties within any batch of solar cells, thus providing a readily accessible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility of fabricated devices. Under these optimized conditions, methylammonium lead halide photovoltaic devices readily possessing efficiencies of >16% are achieved. Importantly, the mean batch efficiency of devices fabricated using the ultrasonic spray deposition method is significantly improved and the standard deviation is drastically narrowed. The deposition of an additional meso-porous layer is found to lead to further improvements for both of these parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)697-705
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy
Volume188
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

Keywords

  • Diode
  • Electron transport layer
  • Perovskite
  • Solar cell
  • Spray-deposition
  • TiO

Cite this

Sun, Jingsong ; Pascoe, Alexander R. ; Meyer, Steffen ; Wu, Qijie ; Della Gaspera, Enrico ; Raga, Sonia R. ; Zhang, Tian ; Nattestad, Andrew ; Bach, Udo ; Cheng, Yi Bing ; Jasieniak, Jacek J. / Ultrasonic spray deposition of TiO2 electron transport layers for reproducible and high efficiency hybrid perovskite solar cells. In: Solar Energy. 2019 ; Vol. 188. pp. 697-705.
@article{332f1f3a770445ef8cf1f24ad0ad81b2,
title = "Ultrasonic spray deposition of TiO2 electron transport layers for reproducible and high efficiency hybrid perovskite solar cells",
abstract = "The fabrication of high efficiency perovskite solar cells at larger scales will rely on the optimized deposition conditions of every layer using scalable methodologies. Most current perovskite devices that employ the archetypal TiO2 hole blocking layer utilise a simple air-brush approach. This approach is not scalable as it results in significant layer inhomogeneity across larger devices areas. To overcome this inherent limitation, in this work we use ultrasonic spray deposition as an alternative approach for the TiO2 deposition. Focusing on identical reaction chemistries as for air-brush, namely bis(isopropoxide)-bis(acetylacetonate) titanium (IV) based solutions, we find that under optimized conditions smooth TiO2 layers can be readily deposited over scalable areas on fluorine doped tin oxide. Using these layers at electron transport layers within diodes and perovskite solar cell devices, we develop effective benchmarks that predict the effectiveness of the underlying charge transport layer. This enables for the standardisation of the electron transport properties within any batch of solar cells, thus providing a readily accessible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility of fabricated devices. Under these optimized conditions, methylammonium lead halide photovoltaic devices readily possessing efficiencies of >16{\%} are achieved. Importantly, the mean batch efficiency of devices fabricated using the ultrasonic spray deposition method is significantly improved and the standard deviation is drastically narrowed. The deposition of an additional meso-porous layer is found to lead to further improvements for both of these parameters.",
keywords = "Diode, Electron transport layer, Perovskite, Solar cell, Spray-deposition, TiO",
author = "Jingsong Sun and Pascoe, {Alexander R.} and Steffen Meyer and Qijie Wu and {Della Gaspera}, Enrico and Raga, {Sonia R.} and Tian Zhang and Andrew Nattestad and Udo Bach and Cheng, {Yi Bing} and Jasieniak, {Jacek J.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.solener.2019.06.045",
language = "English",
volume = "188",
pages = "697--705",
journal = "Solar Energy",
issn = "0038-092X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Ultrasonic spray deposition of TiO2 electron transport layers for reproducible and high efficiency hybrid perovskite solar cells. / Sun, Jingsong; Pascoe, Alexander R.; Meyer, Steffen; Wu, Qijie; Della Gaspera, Enrico; Raga, Sonia R.; Zhang, Tian; Nattestad, Andrew; Bach, Udo; Cheng, Yi Bing; Jasieniak, Jacek J.

In: Solar Energy, Vol. 188, 01.08.2019, p. 697-705.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ultrasonic spray deposition of TiO2 electron transport layers for reproducible and high efficiency hybrid perovskite solar cells

AU - Sun, Jingsong

AU - Pascoe, Alexander R.

AU - Meyer, Steffen

AU - Wu, Qijie

AU - Della Gaspera, Enrico

AU - Raga, Sonia R.

AU - Zhang, Tian

AU - Nattestad, Andrew

AU - Bach, Udo

AU - Cheng, Yi Bing

AU - Jasieniak, Jacek J.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - The fabrication of high efficiency perovskite solar cells at larger scales will rely on the optimized deposition conditions of every layer using scalable methodologies. Most current perovskite devices that employ the archetypal TiO2 hole blocking layer utilise a simple air-brush approach. This approach is not scalable as it results in significant layer inhomogeneity across larger devices areas. To overcome this inherent limitation, in this work we use ultrasonic spray deposition as an alternative approach for the TiO2 deposition. Focusing on identical reaction chemistries as for air-brush, namely bis(isopropoxide)-bis(acetylacetonate) titanium (IV) based solutions, we find that under optimized conditions smooth TiO2 layers can be readily deposited over scalable areas on fluorine doped tin oxide. Using these layers at electron transport layers within diodes and perovskite solar cell devices, we develop effective benchmarks that predict the effectiveness of the underlying charge transport layer. This enables for the standardisation of the electron transport properties within any batch of solar cells, thus providing a readily accessible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility of fabricated devices. Under these optimized conditions, methylammonium lead halide photovoltaic devices readily possessing efficiencies of >16% are achieved. Importantly, the mean batch efficiency of devices fabricated using the ultrasonic spray deposition method is significantly improved and the standard deviation is drastically narrowed. The deposition of an additional meso-porous layer is found to lead to further improvements for both of these parameters.

AB - The fabrication of high efficiency perovskite solar cells at larger scales will rely on the optimized deposition conditions of every layer using scalable methodologies. Most current perovskite devices that employ the archetypal TiO2 hole blocking layer utilise a simple air-brush approach. This approach is not scalable as it results in significant layer inhomogeneity across larger devices areas. To overcome this inherent limitation, in this work we use ultrasonic spray deposition as an alternative approach for the TiO2 deposition. Focusing on identical reaction chemistries as for air-brush, namely bis(isopropoxide)-bis(acetylacetonate) titanium (IV) based solutions, we find that under optimized conditions smooth TiO2 layers can be readily deposited over scalable areas on fluorine doped tin oxide. Using these layers at electron transport layers within diodes and perovskite solar cell devices, we develop effective benchmarks that predict the effectiveness of the underlying charge transport layer. This enables for the standardisation of the electron transport properties within any batch of solar cells, thus providing a readily accessible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility of fabricated devices. Under these optimized conditions, methylammonium lead halide photovoltaic devices readily possessing efficiencies of >16% are achieved. Importantly, the mean batch efficiency of devices fabricated using the ultrasonic spray deposition method is significantly improved and the standard deviation is drastically narrowed. The deposition of an additional meso-porous layer is found to lead to further improvements for both of these parameters.

KW - Diode

KW - Electron transport layer

KW - Perovskite

KW - Solar cell

KW - Spray-deposition

KW - TiO

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85067898968&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.solener.2019.06.045

DO - 10.1016/j.solener.2019.06.045

M3 - Article

VL - 188

SP - 697

EP - 705

JO - Solar Energy

JF - Solar Energy

SN - 0038-092X

ER -