Ultrahigh-aspect-ratio light cages: fabrication limits and tolerances of free-standing 3D nanoprinted waveguides

Johannes Bürger, Jisoo Kim, Bumjoon Jang, Julián Gargiulo, Markus A. Schmidt, Stefan A. Maier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Three-dimensional laser nanoprinting represents a unique approach for implementing on-chip hollow-core waveguides. Here we discuss the fabrication characteristics of the light cage geometry arising from the used two-photon polymerization lithography. We reveal the current limits of achievable waveguide length (3 cm), single strand aspect ratio (8200) and modal attenuation. Very high reproducibility for light cages on the same chip is found, while different conditions in fabrication cycles impose chip-to-chip variations. We also highlight the relevance of including reinforcement rings to prevent structural collapse. The results presented uncover key issues that result from nanoprinting light cages and can be transferred to other nanoprinted waveguides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1046-1057
Number of pages12
JournalOptical Materials Express
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

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