Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the major regulator of granulopoiesis and acts through binding to its specific receptor (G-CSF-R) on neutrophilic granulocytes. Previous studies of signaling from the 4 G-CSF-R cytoplasmic tyrosine residues used model cell lines that may have idiosyncratic, nonphysiological responses. This study aimed to identify specific signals transmitted by the receptor tyrosine residues in primary myeloid cells. To bypass the presence of endogenous G-CSF-R, a chimeric receptor containing the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor in place of the entire extracellular domain of the G-CSF-R was used. A series of chimeric receptors containing tyrosine mutations to phenylalanine, either individually or collectively, was constructed and expressed in primary bone marrow cells from G-CSF-deficient mice. Proliferation and differentiation responses of receptor-expressing bone marrow cells stimulated by epidermal growth factor were measured. An increased 50% effective concentration to stimulus of the receptor Ynull mutant indicated that specific signals from tyrosine residues were required for cell proliferation, particularly at low concentrations of stimulus. Impaired responses by mutant receptors implicated G-CSF-R Y764 in cell proliferation and Y729 in granulocyte differentiation signaling. In addition, different sensitivities to ligand stimulation between mutant receptors indicated that G-CSF-R Y744 and possibly Y729 have an inhibitory role in cell proliferation. STAT activation was not affected by tyrosine mutations, whereas ERK activation appeared to depend, at least in part, on Y764. These observations have suggested novel roles for the G-CSF-R tyrosine residues in primary cells that were not observed previously in studies in cell lines.