Typhoid transmission: a historical perspective on mathematical model development

Iurii Bakach, Matthew R Just, Manoj Gambhir, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Mathematical models of typhoid transmission were first developed nearly half a century ago. To facilitate a better understanding of the historical development of this field, we reviewed mathematical models of typhoid and summarized their structures and limitations. Eleven models, published in 1971 to 2014, were reviewed. While models of typhoid vaccination are well developed, we highlight the need to better incorporate water, sanitation and hygiene interventions into models of typhoid and other foodborne and waterborne diseases. Mathematical modeling is a powerful tool to test and compare different intervention strategies which is important in the world of limited resources. By working collaboratively, epidemiologists and mathematicians should build better mathematical models of typhoid transmission, including pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, which will be useful in epidemiological and public health practice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)679-689
Number of pages11
JournalTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • carrier state
  • epidemiology
  • sanitation
  • theoretical models
  • typhoid fever
  • vaccines

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