Type II toxin: antitoxin systems. More than small selfish entities?

Andrea Rocker, Anton Meinhart

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Toxin–antitoxin (TA) modules regulate metabolism and viability of bacteria and archaea. In type II TA systems these functions are generally thought to be performed by two small proteins. However, evidence is increasing that the toxins are much more diverse and can form multi-domain proteins. Recently, we published a novel type II TA system in which toxin and antitoxin are covalently linked into a single polypeptide chain. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on these elongated toxin homologs and provide perspectives for future study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-290
Number of pages4
JournalCurrent Genetics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Elongated toxin
  • Fusion
  • Multi-domain protein
  • Toxin–antitoxin system

Cite this