Postnatal maturation of the immune system is poorly understood, as is its impact on illnesses afflicting term or preterm infants, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension. These are both cardiopulmonary inflammatory diseases that cause substantial mortality and morbidity with high treatment costs. Here, we characterized blood samples collected from 51 preterm infants longitudinally at five time points, 20 healthy term infants at birth and age 3 to 16 weeks, and 5 healthy adults. We observed strong associations between type 2 immune polarization in circulating CD3+CD4+ T cells and cardiopulmonary illness, with odds ratios up to 24. Maternal magnesium sulfate therapy, delayed hepatitis B vaccination, and increasing fetal, but not maternal, chorioamnionitis severity were associated with attenuated type 2 polarization. Blocking type 2 mediators such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, or signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in murine neonatal cardiopulmonary disease in vivo prevented changes in cell type composition, increases in IL-1β and IL-13, and losses of pulmonary capillaries, but not gains in larger vessels. Thereby, type 2 blockade ameliorated lung inflammation, protected alveolar and vascular integrity, and confirmed the pathological impact of type 2 cytokines and STAT6. In-depth flow cytometry and single-cell transcriptomics of mouse lungs further revealed complex associations between immune polarization and cardiopulmonary disease. Thus, this work advances knowledge on developmental immunology and its impact on early life disease and identifies multiple therapeutic approaches that may relieve inflammation-driven suffering in the youngest patients.