Type 2 diabetes prevention in the "real world": One-year results of the GOAL implementation trial

Pilvikki Absetz, Raisa Valve, Brian Federick Oldenburg, Heikki Heinonen, Aulikki Nissinen, Mikael Fogelholm, Vesa Ilvesmaki, Martti Talja, Antti Uutela

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178 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: Real-world implementation of lifestyle interventions is a challenge. The Good Ageing in Lahti Region (GOAL) Lifestyle Implementation Trial was designed for the primary health care setting, with lifestyle and risk reduction objectives derived from the major diabetes prevention efficacy trials. We report on the program s effectiveness as well as findings related to the program s reach, adoption, and implementation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 352 middle-aged participants with elevated type 2 diabetes risk were recruited from the health care centers in Paijat-Home Province in Finland. The intervention included six group counseling sessions, delivered by trained public health nurses. Measurement was conducted at baseline and 12 months. Clinical risk factors were measured by study nurses, and lifestyle outcomes were analyzed from self-reports. Lifestyle outcomes were compared with the outcomes achieved in relevant efficacy trials, and within-subject changes were tested for risk reduction. RESULTS: At baseline, mean BMI was >32 kg/m2, and 25 of the participants had impaired glucose tolerance. At 12 months, 20 of participants achieved at least four of five key lifestyle outcomes, with these results being comparable with the reference trials. However, physical activity and weight loss goals were achieved significantly less frequently (65 vs. 86 and 12 vs. 43 , respectively). Several clinical risk factors decreased, more so among men than women. CONCLUSIONS: This trial demonstrates that lifestyle counseling can be effective and is feasible in real-world settings for individuals with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. To increase program impact, program exposure and treatment intensity need to be increased.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2465 - 2470
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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