Two level half factorial design for the extraction of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidants recovery from palm kernel by-product

Wah Heng Wong, Wei Xiong Lee, Nagasundara Ramanan Ramakrishnan, Lee Hong Tee, Kin Weng Kong, Charis M Galanakis, Jian Sun, Krishna Murthy Nagendra Prasad

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106 Citations (Scopus)


Every year palm oil industry in Malaysia produces enormous quantity of by-products and has great potential to be reutilized as good source of antioxidants. In this study, a two level half factorial design was employed to recover phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidants from palm kernel by-product. The assay included the following independent factors: pH (2-6), ethanol concentration (20-80 ), liquid to solid ratio (10-100. mL/g), temperature (30-80. ?C) and time (30-300. min). Half factorial design was employed to determine the significant contribution of the above factors towards antioxidant capacity (total antioxidant activity, DPPH and FRAP), total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Among, all the factors examined, ethanol concentration and liquid to solid ratio are very significant (p
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238 - 248
Number of pages11
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Issue numberJanuary 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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