Two-Dimensional Hallmark of Highly Interconnected Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Graphene

Iolanda Di Bernardo, Giulia Avvisati, Carlo Mariani, Nunzio Motta, Chaoyu Chen, José Avila, Maria Carmen Asensio, Stefano Lupi, Yoshikazu Ito, Mingwei Chen, Takeshi Fujita, Maria Grazia Betti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Scaling graphene from a two-dimensional (2D) ideal structure to a three-dimensional (3D) millimeter-sized architecture without compromising its remarkable electrical, optical, and thermal properties is currently a great challenge to overcome the limitations of integrating single graphene flakes into 3D devices. Herewith, highly connected and continuous nanoporous graphene (NPG) samples, with electronic and vibrational properties very similar to those of suspended graphene layers, are presented. We pinpoint the hallmarks of 2D ideal graphene scaled in these 3D porous architectures by combining the state-of-the-art spectromicroscopy and imaging techniques. The connected and bicontinuous topology, without frayed borders and edges and with low density of crystalline defects, has been unveiled via helium ion, Raman, and transmission electron microscopies down to the atomic scale. Most importantly, nanoscanning photoemission unravels a 3D NPG structure with preserved 2D electronic density of states (Dirac cone like) throughout the porous sample. Furthermore, the high spatial resolution brings to light the interrelationship between the topology and the morphology in the wrinkled and highly bent regions, where distorted sp2 C bonds, associated with sp3-like hybridization state, induce small energy gaps. This highly connected graphene structure with a 3D skeleton overcomes the limitations of small-sized individual graphene sheets and opens a new route for a plethora of applications of the 2D graphene properties in 3D devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3691-3697
Number of pages7
JournalACS Omega
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes

Cite this