We report two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and combined immunodeficiency with unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings of gadolinium-enhancing white matter lesions, quite different from cryptococcomas and seen prior to anti-fungal treatment. The lesions resembled demyelinating plaques and resolved. In one patient, biopsy of the lesion revealed cryptococci, non-specific inflammatory changes and occasional small perivascular lymphocyte collections, but not demyelination. Leukoencephalopathy, previously rarely observed in Cryptococcal meningitis, was thought to be the sequelae of amphotericin toxicity. Our cases demonstrate cryptococcal meningitis may present with leukoencephalopathy, possibly as an immune response to the organism.
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
- Cryptococcus meningitis
- Demyelinating disease