Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels

Bruno C. De Cooman, Yuri Estrin, Sung Kyu Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

320 Citations (Scopus)


This article reviews original work and important new developments in the field of deformation behavior of high manganese face-centered cubic γ-Fe alloys. Owing to their exceptional mechanical properties, these alloys, referred to as twinning-induced plasticity, or TWIP, steels, have come to the fore as prime candidate materials for light-weight applications, notably in automotive, shipbuilding, and oil and gas industries. It is established that a superior combination of strength and ductility exhibited by TWIP steels is associated with a specific character of the variation of the dislocation density. The defining feature of TWIP steels is the small magnitude of the intrinsic stacking fault energy. In addition to limiting the dynamic recovery rate, the low stacking fault energy of TWIP steels results in the formation of isolated stacking faults and deformation twins, which reduces the dislocation mean free path. Both effects lead to an increased strain hardening rate. Despite the progress made, there are still considerable differences between the models proposed for the microstructural evolution during the deformation of TWIP steels and the concomitant strain hardening behavior. The review surveys the experimental literature, summarizes the current modeling concepts, and identifies the outstanding issues with TWIP steels that require the attention of the materials science community. Suggestions for the directions of future research on twinning-induced plasticity steels are offered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-362
Number of pages80
JournalActa Materialia
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


  • Dislocation glide
  • High manganese steel
  • Mechanical twinning
  • Stacking fault energy
  • Strain hardening

Cite this

De Cooman, B. C., Estrin, Y., & Kim, S. K. (2018). Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels. Acta Materialia, 142, 283-362.