Turn it over: a demonstration that spatial keyboards are logical for braille

Kirsten Ellis, Leona Holloway

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther


This demonstration illustrates the importance of the layout of a keyboard to using braille, which is highly dependent on its spatial arrangement. The design and layout of a keyboard for entering braille changes the mental effort required to transform the dots prior to inputting the braille cells. The design of two keyboards that can be used for entering braille onto an electronic device are contrasted for the demonstration. Keyboard 1 has the dots on the top and Keyboard 2 has the dots underneath. Each has inherent advantages and disadvantages.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationASSETS'18 - Proceedings of the 20th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility
Subtitle of host publicationOctober 22–24, 2018 Galway, Ireland
EditorsJoanna McGrenere, David Flatla
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9781450356503
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventACM SIGACCESS International Conference on Computers and Accessibility 2018 - Galway, Ireland
Duration: 22 Oct 201824 Oct 2018
Conference number: 20th


ConferenceACM SIGACCESS International Conference on Computers and Accessibility 2018
Abbreviated titleASSETS 2018
Internet address


  • Accessibility
  • Braille
  • Design
  • Keyboard

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