TS-CHIEF: a scalable and accurate forest algorithm for time series classification

Ahmed Shifaz, Charlotte Pelletier, François Petitjean, Geoffrey I. Webb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

122 Citations (Scopus)


Time Series Classification (TSC) has seen enormous progress over the last two decades. HIVE-COTE (Hierarchical Vote Collective of Transformation-based Ensembles) is the current state of the art in terms of classification accuracy. HIVE-COTE recognizes that time series data are a specific data type for which the traditional attribute-value representation, used predominantly in machine learning, fails to provide a relevant representation. HIVE-COTE combines multiple types of classifiers: each extracting information about a specific aspect of a time series, be it in the time domain, frequency domain or summarization of intervals within the series. However, HIVE-COTE (and its predecessor, FLAT-COTE) is often infeasible to run on even modest amounts of data. For instance, training HIVE-COTE on a dataset with only 1500 time series can require 8 days of CPU time. It has polynomial runtime with respect to the training set size, so this problem compounds as data quantity increases. We propose a novel TSC algorithm, TS-CHIEF (Time Series Combination of Heterogeneous and Integrated Embedding Forest), which rivals HIVE-COTE in accuracy but requires only a fraction of the runtime. TS-CHIEF constructs an ensemble classifier that integrates the most effective embeddings of time series that research has developed in the last decade. It uses tree-structured classifiers to do so efficiently. We assess TS-CHIEF on 85 datasets of the University of California Riverside (UCR) archive, where it achieves state-of-the-art accuracy with scalability and efficiency. We demonstrate that TS-CHIEF can be trained on 130 k time series in 2 days, a data quantity that is beyond the reach of any TSC algorithm with comparable accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)742-775
Number of pages34
JournalData Mining and Knowledge Discovery
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2020


  • Bag of words
  • Classification
  • Forest
  • Metrics
  • Scalable
  • Time series
  • Transformation

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